Transdisciplinarity in Science and Religion, 4-2008

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The foreign policy of the voters of the two major parties has largely overlapped since the s. A Gallup poll in early showed broad agreement on the top issues, albeit with some divergence regarding human rights and international cooperation through agencies such as the United Nations. A The United States is doing too much in other countries around the world, and it is time to do less around the world and focus more on our own problems here at home.

B The United States must continue to push forward to promote democracy and freedom in other countries around the world because these efforts make our own country more secure. In , Congressional Democrats were divided on the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq : voted against it 21 in the Senate and in the House and voted for it 29 in the Senate and 81 in the House.

Since then, many prominent Democrats, such as former senator John Edwards , have expressed regret about this decision and have called it a mistake while others, such as Senator Hillary Clinton , have criticized the conduct of the war yet not repudiated their initial vote for it though Clinton later went on to repudiate her stance during the primaries.

Referring to Iraq, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid declared in April the war to be "lost" while other Democrats especially during the presidential election cycle accused the President of lying to the public about weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. Among lawmakers, Democrats are the most vocal opponents of Operation Iraqi Freedom and campaigned on a platform of withdrawal ahead of the midterm elections.

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Democrats in the House of Representatives near-unanimously supported a non-binding resolution disapproving of President Bush's decision to send additional troops into Iraq in Congressional Democrats overwhelmingly supported military funding legislation that included a provision that set "a timeline for the withdrawal of all US combat troops from Iraq" by March 31, , but also would leave combat forces in Iraq for purposes such as targeted counter-terrorism operations.

Criticism of the Iraq War subsided after the Iraq War troop surge of led to a dramatic decrease in Iraqi violence. The Democratic-controlled th Congress continued to fund efforts in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Presidential candidate Barack Obama advocated a withdrawal of combat troops within Iraq by late with a residual force of peacekeeping troops left in place. The Democratic Party has been critical of the Iran's nuclear weapon program and supported economic sanctions against the Iranian government.

In , the Democratic-led administration worked to reach a diplomatic agreement with the government of Iran to halt the Iranian nuclear weapon program in exchange for international economic sanction relief.

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Democrats in the House of Representatives and in the Senate near-unanimously voted for the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists against "those responsible for the recent attacks launched against the United States " in Afghanistan in , supporting the NATO coalition invasion of the nation. Most elected Democrats continue to support the Afghanistan conflict and some, such as a Democratic National Committee spokesperson, have voiced concerns that the Iraq War shifted too many resources away from the presence in Afghanistan.

Troop levels were 94, in December and kept falling, with a target of 68, by fall Obama planned to bring all the troops home by Support for the war among the American people has diminished over time and many Democrats have changed their opinion and now oppose a continuation of the conflict. In contrast, Republicans were more supportive of the war. Three quarters of Democrats oppose the war".

The Democratic Party has both recently and historically supported Israel. The Democratic Party platform acknowledges a " special relationship with Israel, grounded in shared interests and shared values, and a clear, strong, fundamental commitment to the security of Israel, our strongest ally in the region and its only established democracy". It also included:. It is in the best interests of all parties, including the United States, that we take an active role to help secure a lasting settlement of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict with a democratic, viable Palestinian state dedicated to living in peace and security side by side with the Jewish State of Israel.

To do so, we must help Israel identify and strengthen those partners who are truly committed to peace while isolating those who seek conflict and instability, and stand with Israel against those who seek its destruction.


The United States and its Quartet partners should continue to isolate Hamas until it renounces terrorism, recognizes Israel's right to exist, and abides by past agreements. Sustained American leadership for peace and security will require patient efforts and the personal commitment of the President of the United States. The creation of a Palestinian state through final status negotiations, together with an international compensation mechanism, should resolve the issue of Palestinian refugees by allowing them to settle there, rather than in Israel. All understand that it is unrealistic to expect the outcome of final status negotiations to be a full and complete return to the armistice lines of Jerusalem is and will remain the capital of Israel.

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The parties have agreed that Jerusalem is a matter for final status negotiations. It should remain an undivided city accessible to people of all faiths. Around half of all political moderates or independents sided with Israel. The rise of the progressive Bernie Sanders-aligned faction of the party, which tends to trend more pro-Palestine, is also likely responsible for the decline in support for Israel.

A Pew Research poll found that while Clinton supporters sympathized more with Israel than Palestinians by a point margin, Sanders supporters sympathized more with Palestinians than with Israel by a 6-point margin. Professionals, those who have a college education and those whose work revolves around the conception of ideas have supported the Democratic Party by a slight majority since Between and , professionals favored Democrats by a percentage point margin. While the professional class was once a stronghold of the Republican Party, it has become increasingly split between the two parties, leaning in favor of the Democratic Party.

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The increasing support for Democratic candidates among professionals may be traced to the prevalence of social liberal values among this group: []. Professionals, who are, roughly speaking, college-educated producers of services and ideas, used to be the most staunchly Republican of all occupational groups [ In the four elections from to , they backed Democrats by an average of 52 percent to 40 percent. A study on the political attitudes of medical students , for example, found that "U.

Future U. Academics, intellectuals and the highly educated overall constitute an important part of the Democratic voter base. Academia in particular tends to be progressive.

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The social sciences and humanities were the most liberal disciplines while business was the most conservative. Male professors at more advanced stages of their careers as well as those at elite institutions, tend to be the most liberal. Those with graduate education have become increasingly Democratic beginning in , [] , [] , [90] [91] and [] elections.

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SCIENCE AND RELIGION Series coordinated by Basarab Nicolescu and Magda StavinschiThis volume is issued with the gener. Transdisciplinary Journal of Engineering & Science Vol: 1, No:1, (December, Transdisciplinarity in Science and Religion, n° 4, , Curtea Veche Publ.

Intellectualism, the tendency to constantly reexamine issues, or in the words of Edwards Shields, the "penetration beyond the screen of immediate concrete experience", has also been named as an explanation why academia is strongly democratic and liberal. In the past, a self-identified Republican was more likely to have a 4-year college degree, but according to some recent surveys similar percentages of Republicans and Democrats are likely to have 4-year college degrees and Democrats are more likely to hold post-graduate degrees.

An analysis of through survey data from the General Social Survey, the National Election Studies and the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press led to a slightly different assessment of the overall educational status of self-identified Democrats and Republicans:. On average, self-identified Republicans have more years of education 4 to 8 months each, depending on the survey and are probably more likely to hold, at the least, a 4-year college degree. One major survey indicates that they are more likely, while the results of another survey are statistically insignificant.

With respect to post-graduate studies, the educational advantage is shifting towards self-identified Democrats. They are now more likely to hold post-graduate college degrees.

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Studies have shown that younger voters tend to vote mostly for Democratic candidates in recent years. Despite supporting Ronald Reagan and George H.


Bush , the young have voted in favor of the Democratic presidential candidate in every election since Bill Clinton in and are more likely to identify as liberals than the general population. The Young Democrats of America are an affiliated organization of members of the party younger than 36 that advocates for youth issues and works for youth voter turnout.

Although the gender gap has varied over many years, women of all ages are more likely than men to identify as Democrats. Among ethnic minorities, women also are more likely than males to identify as Democrats. Also, American women that identified as single, living with a domestic partner, divorced, separated, or widowed are more likely than men in these categories to vote Democratic, in contrast to married Americans which split about equally between Democrat and Republican. Women in these categories are significantly more likely than males in these categories to vote Democratic.

National women's organizations that support Democratic candidates are Emily's List , which aims to help elect pro-choice Democratic female candidates to office and often but not always the National Organization for Women. Americans that identify as single, living with a domestic partner, divorced, separated, or widowed are more likely to vote Democratic in contrast to married Americans which split about equally between Democrat and Republican.

GSS surveys of more than 11, Democrats and Republicans conducted between and came to the result that the differences in fertility rates are not statistically significant between these parties, with the average Democrat having 1. Patrick Egan, a professor of politics at New York University specializing in LGBT voting patterns, calls this a "remarkable continuity", saying that "about three-fourths vote Democratic and one-fourth Republican from year to year".

Since the s, a critical component of the Democratic Party coalition has been organized labor. Labor unions supply a great deal of the money, grass roots political organization and voting base of support for the party. Democrats are far more likely to be represented by unions, although union membership has declined, in general, during the last few decades.

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This trend is depicted in the following graph from the book Democrats and Republicans—Rhetoric and Reality. The historic decline in union membership over the past half-century has been accompanied by a growing disparity between public sector and private sector union membership percentages. Other important issues for labor unions include supporting industrial policy including protectionism that sustains unionized manufacturing jobs, raising the minimum wage and promoting broad social programs such as Social Security and universal health care.

While the American working class has lost much of its political strength with the decline of labor unions , [] it remains a stronghold of the Democratic Party and continues as an essential part of the Democratic base.

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The working class is largely distinguished by highly routinized and closely supervised work. It consists mainly of clerical and blue-collar workers. However, most working class Democrats differ from most liberals in their more socially conservative views.