In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Recent Publications. B Tauris Publishers, Index to p. London: I. Tauris, Bibliography to p. London: Routledge, Louisville, KY: Fons Vitae, Appendix to p.
This approach to international affairs was not an example of selfless behavior. Lon Tinkle, Mr. The Benevolent Empire Reprinted with permission of Foreign Policy, Summer Not so long ago, when the Monica Lewinsky scandal first broke in the global media, an involuntary and therefore unusually revealing gasp of concern could be heard in the capitals of many of the world's most prominent nations. The investigation notwithstanding, U. For all the bleating about hegemony, no nation really wants genuine multipolarity. Products refined on the Gulf Coast from Canadian oil sands, for example, will likely be headed to fast-growing markets in Asia.
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Project MUSE Mission Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Azmeh died on the battlefield along with many of the Syrian troops. Goybet entered Damascus on July 24, The Mandate was written in London on July 24, On September 27, , France proclaimed, by virtue of and within the framework of the Mandate, the independence and sovereignty of the Syrian State. There were protests in over the slow French withdrawal; the French responded to these protests with artillery.
Continuing pressure from Syrian nationalist groups and the British forced the French to evacuate the last of its troops in April , leaving the country in the hands of a republican government that was formed during the mandate. Although rapid economic development followed the declaration of independence, Syrian politics from independence through the late s were marked by upheaval. The early years of independence were marked by political instability. It is characterized by political and military conflict, in this case caused by British and American interests in the oil industry.
Volume production of Persian oil products eventually started in from a refinery built at Abadan, for its first 50 years the largest oil refinery in the world. Although Britain had large reserves of coal, oil had advantages in better energy density, allowing a longer steaming range for a ship of the same bunker capacity. In exchange for secure oil supplies for its ships, the British government injected new capital into the company and in doing so, acquired a controlling interest in APOC. The British government also became a de facto hidden power behind the oil company.
In , Burmah employed Winston Churchill as a paid consultant to lobby the British government to allow APOC to have exclusive rights to Persian oil resources, which were subsequently granted. These promises were not kept. Increased tensions with Britain led to pro-German rallies in Tehran. Fadayan-e Islam supported the demands of the National Front, which held a minority of seats in Parliament, to nationalize the assets of the British Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. Later in March , the Iranian parliament voted to nationalize the AIOC and its holdings, and shortly thereafter the Iranian public elected a champion of nationalization, Mohammed Mossadegh, Prime Minister.
This led to the Abadan Crisis in which foreign countries agreed not to purchase Iranian oil under British pressure and the Abadan refinery was closed. As the months went on, the crisis became acute. By mid, an attempt by the Shah to replace Mossadegh backfired and led to riots against the Shah and perceived foreign intervention; Mossadegh returned with even greater power. Britain was unable to subvert Mossadegh as its embassy and officials had been evicted from Iran in October However, they successfully appealed to exaggerated anti-communist sentiments in the U.
In August, the American CIA, with the help of bribes to politicians, soldiers, mobs, and newspapers and information from the British embassy and secret service, organized a riot which gave the Shah an excuse to remove Mossadegh. However, public opinion was so opposed that the new government could not permit it. Under pressure from the U. It was incorporated in London in as a holding company called Iranian Oil Participants. Afterward, the oil industry began to nationalize throughout the Middle East. Skip to main content.
The Middle East after the Ottoman Empire. Search for:. Key Takeaways Key Points The Sykes-Picot Agreement was a secret agreement between Great Britain and France, with Russia assenting, that defined their mutually agreed spheres of influence and control in Southwestern Asia, under control of the declining Ottoman Empire.
The agreement is seen by many as a turning point in Western and Arab relations, still mentioned when considering the region and its present-day conflicts.
Key Terms Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant : A jihadist unrecognised state and militant group that follows a fundamentalist doctrine of Sunni Islam. This group has been designated a terrorist organization by the United Nations and many individual countries. It is widely known for its videoed beheadings of both soldiers and civilians, including journalists and aid workers, and destruction of cultural heritage sites. The understanding between the three powers, supplemented by agreements with Japan and Portugal, constituted a powerful counterweight to the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Kingdom of Italy, though Italy did not side with Germany and Austria during World War I.
Lawrence : A British author, archaeologist, military officer, and diplomat. The breadth and variety of his activities and associations, and his ability to describe them vividly in writing, earned him international fame as Lawrence of Arabia—a title used for the film based on his wartime activities.
The United Kingdom in the Middle East During the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, the British promised the international Zionist movement their support in recreating the historic Jewish homeland in Palestine via the Balfour declaration, a move that created much political conflict, still present today. Learning Objectives Demonstrate how British interests in the Middle East affected the development of the region. Bills to break up the integrated operations of major oil companies, force them out of other energy industries, and create a competing government-owned oil company came up for serious discussion.
Congress settled for the less radical, but still meaningful, termination of the long-cherished percentage depletion allowance for large integrated oil producers.
Three Kings: The Rise of an American Empire in the Middle East After World War II [Lloyd C. Gardner] on turquiqunemoun.cf *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Read 3 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Three Kings: The Rise of an American Empire in the Middle East After World . to obtain sufficient oil to prosecute the war, but also to ensure American primary Aug 11,
The crisis of confidence inspired policy intellectuals to formulate new energy strategies, largely premised on replacing oil from overseas. The growing public mandate for environmental protection from oil pollution, catalyzed by the outcry over the Santa Barbara oil spill, introduced extra tension between these conflicting priorities. Presidents Gerald R. The oil crisis also produced a market response that eventually undermined energy reform. Rising oil revenues afforded the commercialization of sophisticated oil field technologies needed to reach oil deposits under difficult environmental conditions.
The digital revolution in geophysical surveying, advances in recovering heavy oil from older fields, and innovations in mechanized drilling extended the life of U.
When Ronald Reagan entered the White House, the expansion of domestic oil drilling, not conservation, became the preferred route to energy redemption. His secretary of the interior, James Watt, enforced this approach through a fire sale of federal land for oil and other natural resource development.
The United States received another blessing coming out of the oil crises. Much of the money transferred from U. The bulk of this recycling resulted from deals between the U. Treasury and the Saudi central bank to funnel vast surpluses of Saudi petrodollars into purchases of U. The U.
Petrodollar flows financed U. The United States could simply print money to buy crude oil, while other countries had to borrow or trade for dollars to do the same. But the close link between the dollar and oil was a precarious foundation on which to reestablish American hegemony. The link fueled debt and deficits at home, as well as a wave of excessive foreign lending by U. The oil-backed dollar also bound the United States to sclerotic regimes in the Middle East, a region that was increasingly destabilized by the massive infusion of U.
During the mids the world oil economy experienced a third shock, this time through a collapse in prices. Facing falling demand in the early s, OPEC tried to restrict output and hold individual producing nations to production quotas, but cheating and discounting could not be prevented.
The tables were swiftly turned. Oil prices fluctuated but remained cheap for the next fourteen years. Directly tied to this third oil shock was the savings and loan bust of the late s. The oil price collapse also played a lead role in ending the Cold War. Rather than paring back its global military presence, the United States enlarged it—a sign that U. Concerns about access to oil, even in the low-price environment of the s, and the escalation of competition for resources in the s, transformed the U. Successive U. Thus, the United States supported Iraq in its brutal war against postrevolutionary Iran.
Most notably, the U.