Why are we the only human species still alive?
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Though there is evidence they ate birds, they may have lured them in with the remains of other dead animal carcasses, rather than actively hunting them in the sky. All in all, "modern humans seemed to have a greater number of things they could do when put under stress," says Stewart.

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This ability to innovate and adapt may explain why we replaced Neanderthals so quickly. He believes that there is something intrinsic to modern humans that helped us adapt so quickly. There is some evidence for that.

View image of Neanderthals liked hunting in forests Credit: Julie G. We know Neanderthal tools were remarkably efficient for the tasks they used them for, but when we arrived into Europe ours were better. The archaeological evidence suggests that we had a greater range of innovative and deadly tools. But tools are not the only things modern humans made. We also created something else, which helped us outcompete every other species on Earth: symbolic art. Genetic analysis suggests that Neanderthals and Denisovans both had the capacity for language.

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They carried the genes that allow us to finely control how our tongues move. However, our heads were shaped differently to theirs, says Shea. That suggests we are better at making certain sounds. In contrast, Neanderthals and other ancient hominins had their faces further to the front of their skulls.

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That does not necessarily mean they could not talk. Instead, it may indicate their language was more like song. Shortly after modern humans left Africa, there is ample evidence that they were making art.

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Archaeologists have found ornaments, jewellery, figurative depictions of mythical animals and even musical instruments. As our numbers swelled, we began living in much more complex social units, and needed more sophisticated ways to communicate. By 40, years ago, humans in Europe were making things any of us would recognise as art.

Similar sculptures from the same period have been found elsewhere in Europe.

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This suggests that we were sharing information across cultural groups from different areas, rather than keeping knowledge to ourselves. It seems art was a critical part of our identity, helping to bring different groups together. In other words, symbols were a kind of social glue. They could "help people organise their social and economic affairs with one another," says Conard.

In stark contrast, Neanderthals didn't seem to need art or symbols. There is limited evidence they made some jewellery , but not to the extent we did. They didn't need a whole arsenal of symbolic artefacts to get the job done. For humans, the sharing of symbolic information has been crucial to our success. Every new idea we pick up has the chance to become immortal by being passed down through the generations. That is how language spread, for example. The fact that we made any art at all, using the same hands that made all those tools, also points to our unique capacity for behavioural variability, says Shea.

This is something we do exclusively well. Other ancient hominins seemed to do the same thing over and over again. That has long been a popular view. Illustrations of human evolution like the one above often show a progression from ape-like creatures to modern humans, with ever bigger brains as things went on. Most Europeans only developed a tolerance to lactose when our ancestors started to eat more dairy produce.

In reality, our evolutionary story is more complicated than that.

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Homo erectus survived for a long time and was the first hominin species to expand out of Africa — before even the Neanderthals — but its brain was quite small. As a result, some anthropologists are uncomfortable with the idea that big brains were the solution. Our big brains may have played a role in our success , but Neanderthals had equally large brains compared to their body size.

We know that our behaviour, or the circumstances in which we find ourselves, can change our genetic make-up. For instance, most Europeans only developed a tolerance to lactose when our ancestors started to eat more dairy produce.

The digital human

Genetic changes can also occur when large populations are faced with devastating diseases such as the Black Death in the 14th Century , which changed the genes of survivors. In a similar vein, Hublin proposes that modern humans, at some point, benefited from key genetic changes.

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For the first , years of our existence, modern humans behaved much like Neanderthals. Our tools became more complex, around the time when we started developing symbolic artefacts. We now have genetic evidence to suggest that our DNA changed at some point after we split from the common ancestor we shared with Neanderthals. When peering into our genetic make-up, there are important differences between us and our Neanderthal and Denisovan relatives.

Geneticists have identified several dozen points in our genome that are unique to us, and several of them are involved in brain development. Before we developed these abilities, modern humans and other hominins were fairly evenly matched. This suggests that while Neanderthals may have had a similar brain size to ours, it may have been the way our brains developed over our lifetimes that was key to our success.

We don't know what benefits these genetic changes had. But others have suggested that it is our hyper-social, cooperative brain that sets us apart. From language and culture to war and love, our most distinctively human behaviours all have a social element. That means it could be our propensity for social living that led to our ability to use symbols and make art. In brief, one or a small number of chimpanzees are injected with an immunogen of interest.

Immunogens that have been used for successful monoclonal antibody production have included such agents as inactivated human viruses or bacterial toxins. At a chosen interval after the final boost, a bone marrow sample is collected from the chimpanzee.

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At least unlike with the Krell, the Kelvans were not ultimately destroyed by this encounter with their primitive natures and even decided to abandon their mission of conquest. Both of which have little to do with evolution. Western culture also offers rewarding alternatives to growing large families which is essential to the future of the species. Indeed, a full-scale nuclear war could conceivably destroy civilization and even render humanity extinct. Things like disease don't count for this purpose. Meanwhile, Jacobs clears development of a more powerful, gaseous version of the drug — ALZ — when Will tells him it can also improve intelligence. Global warming?

Lymphocytes are purified from the bone marrow samples, RNA is isolated, and cDNA is prepared for cloning in various expression vectors. Coding sequences that express protein fragments can bind to the desired immunogen and are then isolated. It has been suggested that this approach provides two potential advantages over monoclonal antibody production in other species. First, because the antibody protein sequences between the chimpanzee and the human are so similar Ehrlich et al.

Second, because the immune responses of the chimpanzee and the human are so similar, it is likely that chimpanzees would mount immune responses that are similar to analogous immune challenges seen in humans. It is possible to develop monoclonal antibodies with these types of binding specificities in species other than chimpanzees.

As is commonly done, these binding domains can readily be converted into fully humanized antibodies see Nelson et al. Monoclonal antibodies prepared in other species with properties similar to the chimpanzee antibodies are already described in the literature reviewed by Marasco and Sui, Further, genetic humanization of the immunoglobulin locus in mice allows for rapid and high throughput production of fully human antibodies.

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For example, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals has created the so-called VelocImmune mouse by directly replacing mouse antibody gene segments with their human counterparts at the same location Valenzuela et al. Alternatively, human antibodies can be induced in human xenotransplantation models Becker et al. While the chimpanzee is clearly capable of making an effective humoral response to these immunogens, there seems to be no unique properties to the resultant antibodies to suggest that the continued use of the chimpanzee is required.