In the arts are - today as it was - different chemical materials and tools used. The restoration and analysis of artifacts requires knowledge of chemical relationships, reactions and compounds. Extending the scope to all items that are considered works of art, then find many aspects of chemical application - for example: textile chemistry , construction chemistry , chemistry of dyes and vegetable dyes , corrosion , materials chemistry , analytical chemistry and many others.
Below you will find online available information on chemical aspects of art and the restoration of works of art. Metal composition hold key to identity of modern sculptures Alloying elements in bronze sculptures give clues about artist, date, origin and authenticity. Nanoscience for Art Conservation New Look for Antiques: Paintings and gilt surfaces can be effectively and gently restored with water-based microemulsions. Chemistry in the Arts Careers. Violet Purple. Violet is the royal color, suggesting wealth and power, passion and luxury.
The Phoenicians obtained a purple dye from oysters that was reserved for royalty because of its rarity. Negatively, violet indicates mourning and sadness, but a sadness not as deep as that indicated by black. Having a green thumb is a familiar phrase. The word green brings to mind growth, life, and continuation.
It is a quiet color, often suggesting restfulness. It also symbolizes a tender, unripe state or lack of experience. Green also suggests jealousy. Orange suggests glory, heat, a sense of plenty, and happiness, and has few negative associations.
Students will use principles of good composition to achieve a strong focal point when illustrating their conception of an atom. New substances are formed with new physical properties. Well-known works are presented alongside less-familiar pieces, together with architecture, fortifications and settlement patterns, while recent discoveries are revealed. But is this tight control really necessary? He did not mean that knowledge is unnecessary; it just does not have the scope of imagination. Other symbiotic fields between art and science are: tattoos, as body art with physical and chemical consequences; pigments, as basic materials with interesting historiographical preparations; spectroscopy diagnosis, as very broad and thorough method of analysis but also specific and non-intrusive ; biosensors, as one of the applications of new pigments.
Because the eye is attracted to it, it has visibility and is especially useful in identifying important areas. Students will observe the effects of color on individuals in specific situations. Students will apply the principles of good composition and the creative process to an original work. Make a list of specific chemistry-related situations in which color plays a psychologically expressive role. For example, chemical changes often involve fire production, where one envisions a bright red scene. Draw and then color an original composition based on a holiday celebrated with nontraditional colors.
Or, draw and then color a scene or a single object using atypical or unexpected colors e. Include a chemical change in each composition; for example, a Fourth of July fireworks display or the forest of pink and blue trees on fire. Level Three. Interpret, in picture form, a phrase using a specific color e. For example, a picture green with envy could include the discovery of a rare, radioactive element that glows enough to turn the faces of onlookers green with envy.
At this point, a brief discussion of how to arrange a work of art would be appropriate.
See the next section for a discussion of the principles of good composition. These principles include a strong center of interest, a predetermined direction for the movements of a viewers eye, a balance of parts, and interesting use of positive and negative space. They provide some basic common denominators to visual expression. However, there are unlimited possibilities for a meaningful arrangement of these common denominators.
The more unique the arrangement, the more powerful the work of art. Organizational components of art include dominance, proportion, balance, variety and harmony, repetition and movement, and selectivity. An artist uses dominance techniques to hold a viewers attention. To achieve dominance, an artist can accent a part of an image with color, line, shape, value, or texture contrast. Another way to achieve dominance is to have one object in sharper focus than its surroundings. Included in proportion is the visual agreement of relative parts, such as a head size compared to a body size or furniture size compared to room size, and also agreeable relationships of intangible features such as the intensity of a blue color as compared to yellow in a sunset painting.
In addition, it is often stated that odd. The Japanese art of flower arranging, ikebana, requires that three flowers, not two or four, be used in an arrangement. An artist uses balance to achieve a visual equilibrium and harmony. Balance can be symmetrical when one side of an artwork is the mirror image of the other side. Often one side of an image varies from the other side, but a similarity is still felt and there is a sense of balance. This is known as asymmetrical balance. In Winslow Homers painting Snap the Whip, a central figure is surrounded by three figures on the right and four figures on the left, one falling to the ground.
Even though the number of figures is not equal, the figures are similar in shape and movement and the work has a sense of balance. Variety and Harmony. Harmony, a pleasing combination of shapes, is enhanced when variety is introduced. In Ben Joness Black Face and Arm Unit, a wall-mounted sculpture of several arms below associated masklike faces, there is harmony in the repetitive arm and face units and also variety in the face expressions, the arm and mask decorative motifs, and the direction in which the arms are bent.
Repetition and Movement. When visual elements repeat, we find a movement and energy associated with that repetition. In Andy Warhols Campbell Soup Cans, the repeating cans seem to vibrate and move with unending energy. Economy implies a sense of brevity. It is necessary that an artist know what is and what is not essential to accomplish his or her purpose.
Kasimir Malevich painted White on White, a white square painted on a white square ground, the two squares having almost no value contrast. He felt these squares alone would create a certain tension in the viewer It can be seen from this discussion that there are many factors to consider when an artist arranges a work of art.
An interesting, orderly arrangement of line, texture, light-and-dark contrast, shape, and color the elements of design will help create an interesting work of art. The elements of design and the principles of composition are addressed in greater depth in Chapter 7; for now, a brief introduction to good composition is appropriate. Do both two- and three-dimensional artworks require the same elements of design to achieve a good composition?
Considering all the elements of design, in a two-dimensional work, color can.
All the Pieces Are in Place We have all had a chance to assemble a jigsaw puzzle. After emptying the puzzle box, we have a jumble of odd-shaped pieces that we must assemble into a meaningful whole. Good composition is much the same: The pieces of this puzzle are the elements of designline, texture, light-and-dark contrast, shape, and color. Any composition, whether two- or three-dimensional, should use the elements of design to achieve the following: 1. A strong center of interest or focal point This is the point or spot that first attracts the viewers attention, which can be achieved by a variety of means: a.
A light center of interest against darker areas, or vice versa b.
A bright or intense full strength color as the center of interest against duller areas, or vice versa c. A group of small objects against a background of larger shapes, or vice versa d.
A complex or detailed area set against areas of less complexity This contrast of focal point against the remainder of the composition is known as the effect of dominance and subordination. Movement of the eye through the composition Once the center of interest has been established, the rest of the composition should be arranged so that the eye of the viewer will move in a predetermined direction through it.
This movement should follow a direction, such as around, back and forth, up and down, or diagonally, which can be indicated by various means: a. Repetition of a single color in different amounts b. A line or lines c. A shape or shapes d. Repetition of a texture, line, or shape in various sizes 3. Balance of parts The focal point need not be placed at the center of the picture.
Frequently the focal point is moved off-center to create an interesting effect. In a good composition, the balance of all parts is important. There are two types of balance: formal or symmetrical and informal or asymmetrical. In symmetrical balance, the subject is centered and other elements are placed on either side of an imaginary center line to achieve a balanced presentation.
In asymmetrical balance, objects of one type or size on one side of a center line are visually balanced by objects of a different type or size on the opposite side of the line.
Interesting negative and positive space This is addressed in greater detail in Chapter 5; for now, it is sufficient to say that the artist should be aware of not only the shapes and sizes of the subject matter but also the negative space, or remaining space in the background. Too much negative space can overpower the subject matter, detracting from it rather than complementing it.
Unity and harmony Finally, the composition should possess unity and harmony if all the elements of designline, texture, light-and-dark contrast, shape, and colorfit together successfully. Regarding art, unity does not necessarily mean sameness. Therefore, within unity variety of size, shape, and color are important to a successful composition.
The puzzle is then complete! Coca Cola is recognized by a white wave on a red background. McDonalds is recognized by golden arches. Pepsi Cola is recognized by a red, white, and blue ball.
It should be noted that some parking garages have color names for floors so drivers. People connect more immediately with color than with words or pictures. This is clearly evident in street signs and traffic signals: Red means stop, green means go, and yellow means caution. Some colors symbolize meanings more clearly than others; some combinations are more easily seen than others. The best and most easily seen combination is black on yellow, followed by green on white, then red on white. The least effective combination is red on green.
Strongly contrasting color combinations are used on automobile license plates, road signs, billboards, packaged goods in grocery stores, book and magazine covers, and myriad other objects for clarity, visibility, and attractiveness. The pigment primary colors red, yellow, blue and the secondary colors orange, green, violet in full strength, plus black or white, are most often used because these combinations are the easiest to identify. In the world of advertising, companies use color to imprint a product in the memory of the consumer a combination of red and yellow is often associated with McDonalds; a combination of red and white is often associated with Coca-Cola.